Monthly Archives: January 2016




Apples turn brown because of a chemical reaction called “oxidation” , which is caused by oxygen from the air. Oxygen is one of the most reactive substances known. Apples are rich in iron, which is present in all their cells. Oxygen from the air reacts with the iron in the apple cells, forming iron oxides, This is just like the rust that forms on the surface of iron objects. An enzyme called polyphenol oxidase (that’s present in these cells) increase the rate of chemical reaction, that is, helps make this
reaction go faster. The oxidized layer (brown color) formed is just to provides some protection against foreign bodies that may affect the exposed apple cells.
There’s no harm in eating an apple that has turned brown, for the iron oxide will not affect you. Meanwhile, if you are to prepare
apple juice. The iron oxide
gives it the special golden-brown colour, and it’s a tastier way to consume an apple!



Discovered by Russian, American and Japanese scientists, they are the first to be added to the table since 2011, when elements 114 and 116 were put on.

Science textbooks across the world are now out of date after four new elements were added to the periodic table.

The elements, called 115, 117, 113 and 118, now complete the previously unfinished seventh row.

The discovery was verified on 30
December by the US-based International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the global organisation that governs chemical
nomenclature, terminology and measurement.

IUPAC announced that Russian and American scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California had enough evidence to show they had discovered to claim the discovery of elements 115, 117 and 118.

The body awarded credit for the
discovery of element 113, which had also been claimed by the Russians and
Americans, to a team of scientists from the Riken institute in Japan.
Kosuke Morita, who was leading the research at Riken, said his team now planned to “look to the unchartered territory of element 119 and beyond.” Ryoji Noyori, former Riken president
and Nobel laureate in chemistry told the Guardian: “To scientists, this is of more value than an Olympics gold medal”

The elements, which currently bear
placeholder names, will be officially named by the teams that discovered them in the coming months.

“The chemistry community is eager to see
its most cherished table finally being completed down to the seventh row,” said Professor Jan Reedijk, president of the Inorganic Chemistry Division of IUPAC.

“IUPAC has now initiated the process of formalising names and symbols for these elements temporarily named as
ununtrium, (Uut or element 113), ununoctium (Uup, element 115), ununseptium (Uus, element
117), and ununoctium (Uuo, element 118).”

Shock: The four new elements are all man made.

New elements can be named after a mythological concept, a mineral, a place or country, a property or a scientist.

The four new elements, all of which are man-made, were discovered by slamming lighter nuclei into each other and tracking
the following decay of the radioactive superheavy elements.
They only existed for fractions of a second before decaying into other elements.

American, European, Austrian countries have
contributed Immensely to the
development of science in the world, countries are not left out, time is coming that African countries particularly Nigeria will also be among the Frontline of development of science in the world.